martes, 9 de febrero de 2021

4. LATER 18TH C.

La fecha de exámenes de la convocatoria de septiembre está en este enlace: Exámenes de septiembre

______

 

Febrero 2021 - Las calificaciones aparecen en el enlace de la columna derecha. Se puede pedir cita para revisar el examen, telefónica o presencialmente, por e-mail.

 

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La fecha de examen de la primera convocatoria es como sigue:

-grupo 2 (mañana),  lunes 1 feb. 2021 10-13 h aula 301 interfacultades

- grupo 1 (tarde),  lunes 1 feb. 2021 15-18h aula 502 interfacultades

 

Recordad que el examen consta de dos partes, teórica y práctica. La práctica (comentario de texto) sólo la tienen que hacer quienes no entreguen trabajos de cursol. El plazo límite de entrega de los trabajos, impresos por favor, es el día del examen. 

La parte teórica, la que tiene que hacer todo el mundo, consta de preguntas de tipo test (multiple choice) y un tema, a elegir entre dos propuestos. Uno de los dos será uno de los principales autores, los que aparecen nombrados en el programa.  

En cuanto al test, un fallo no descuenta nada, pero cada dos fallos descuentan un acierto. Centraos para preparlo en el conocimiento de los datos centrales sobre autores, obras y géneros.

 

 

________________

 

13 de enero: Hablaremos de los autores de finales del XVIII, y leeremos (quizá) algo de Mary Wollstonecraft y William Blake. 

 

Y con eso terminamos las clases de esta asignatura. Os deseo que os vaya muy bien en la temporada de exámenes que comienza ahora.  En esta web podéis encontrar materiales más que suficientes para la preparación del examen de esta asignatura.

 

______________________

 

Obras de William Blake  (1757-1827):


_____.  Songs of Innocence. 1789.
_____.  The Marriage of Heaven and Hell. c.1790-93.
_____.  America: A Prophecy. 1793.
_____.  Visions of the Daughters of Albion. 1793.
_____.   Songs of Experience. 1794.  ("The Clod and the Pebble"; "London")
_____.  The Book of Urizen. Poem. 1794.
_____.  Europe: A Prophecy. 1794.
_____.  The Book of Los.  Poem. 1795.
_____.  The Four Zoas (Orig. Vala), written and rev. 1797-1804.

_____. "Auguries of Innocence." 1803.
_____.  Milton, a Poem in Two Books. 1804-8.
_____.  Jerusalem: The Emanation of the Giant Albion. 1804-20.

_____. "The Everlasting Gospel." 1818.

William Blake y sus grabados
en Google Images.





 
De Blake tenemos en la selección de lecturas unos poemas: "The Clod and the Pebble", "London", y "Auguries of Innocence".

 Un audio de la BBC sobre Songs of Innocence & Songs of Experience de William Blake. (Este programa de la BBC 4, In Our Time, es una excelente idea añadirlo a vuestros favoritos para practicar inglés con temas de interés cultural).

 

 

____________

 

NIVEL AVANZADO: Un documental de la BBC sobre William Blake

 

____________

 

 

 

 

 


Other writers of the 1790s:



Y casi nos dejamos en el tintero a muchos otros autores importantes de estos años, como Thomas Malthus, o Erasmus Darwin.  Los encontraréis en la Wikipedia y otros sitios de la Red.
 

Malthus, Thomas Robert. An Essay on the Principle of Population. 1798, 1803.

Darwin, Erasmus. The Economy of Vegetation. 1791.
_____. The Botanic Garden. Part II. The Loves of the Plants. 1789.
_____. The Botanic Garden. Online at Project Gutenberg.*
    http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/9612/pg9612.html
_____. Plan for the Conduct of Female Education.
_____. Zoönomia, or the Laws of Organic Life. 2 vols. London, 1794, 1796.
_____. The Temple of Nature. Poem. 1803.
.
 




__________

NIVEL AVANZADO:

Thomas Malthus and Inevitable Poverty: http://youtu.be/4MArzSSF7WU
Un audio sobre The Lunar Society (BBC).
Darwin's Big Bang: http://vanityfea.blogspot.com.es/2012/11/darwins-big-bang.html


________________

 

 




The Age of the French Revolution





Thomas Paine (1737-1809)
_____. Common-Sense. 1776.
_____. The Rights of Man.  1791.
_____. The Age of Reason. 1794-95.

 


William Godwin  (1756-1836)
_____. Enquiry Concerning Political Justice.   1793. 
_____.  Caleb Williams.  Novel. 1794. 
_____.  St. Leon.  Novel.  1799. 
_____.  Cloudesley.  Novel. 1830. 

 





______________________
 

NIVEL AVANZADO:

John Churton Collins on William Godwin and Mary Wollstonecraft (audio): https://youtu.be/bSCb_cSgxsU 

 
Una conferencia de Christopher Hitchens sobre Thomas Paine (empezar en minuto 4). Y otra, una lección de la universidad de Yale, sobre su panfleto Common Sense y la independencia americana.

Radicales transatlánticos: Las sectas comunistas en América.


_________________________





Mary Wollstonecraft  
(1759-1797)


English woman of letters,  1759-97, philosopher, historian and novelist, political thinker and educationist, major theorist of feminism. b. London, unhappy childhood with brutal improvident father; loved Fanny Blood; schoolteacher and governess, Dissenter, frequented Unitarian and radical circles, hack writer for Joseph Johnson, unhappy infatuation with Henry Fuseli; feminist and radical activist; travelled to France during Revolution, met businessman-adventurer Gilbert Imlay, had illegitimate daughter Fanny Imlay; rejected and exploited by Imlay, travelled to Scandinavia as his business agent, underwent severe distress; attempted suicide in Putney Bridge, rescued; friendship and marriage with William Godwin; died after giving birth to daughter Mary Godwin [later Mary Shelley])

  _____. Thoughts on the Education of Daughters. 1787.
_____. Original Stories. Children's book. 1788.
_____. Mary: A Fiction.  1788.
_____. A Vindication of the Rights of Men.  1790.
_____. Vindication of the Rights of Woman.  1792. 
_____. An Historical and Moral View. . . of the French Revolution.  1794.
_____. Letters Written During a Short Residence in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. 1796.
_____.  Maria, or The Wrongs of Woman.  Unfinished novel. In Posthumous Works, 1798.








Mary Wollstonecraft según la Wikipedia.

_____________






___________________________


NIVEL AVANZADO:  MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT


___________________________

 

 

 
EDMUND BURKE        (1729-1797)


Burke, Edmund. A Vindication of Natural Society. 1756.
_____. An Account of the European Settlements in America. With William Burke. 2 vols. 1757.
_____. Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful.  1757.
_____. On Taste. 1759.
_____. Thoughts on the Causes of the Recent Discontents. 1770.
_____. Speech on American Taxation. 1774.
_____. Speech on Conciliation with the Colonies. 1775.
_____. Two Letters on Ireland. 1778.
_____. Speech on Oeconomical Reformation. 1780.
_____. Speech on Mr Fox's East India Bill. 1784.
_____. Speech on the Nabob of Arcot's Debts. 1785.
_____. Articles against Warren Hastings. 1786.
_____. Reflections on the Revolution in France. 1790.
_____. A Letter to a Member of the National Assembly. 1791
_____. Works. 16 vols. 1803-27.

Edmund Burke, English political theorist, MP and orator; wrote pro conciliation with American colonies and against the French revolution, theorist of institutional continuity and tradition.

_______________


NIVEL AVANZADO:

- Edmund Burke (BBC audio): http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00sjqyn


- Videoconferencias sobre Burke - Nivel avanzado

_____________





 






Gothic Romance:

- Un audio sobre la novela gótica inglesa.





Horace Walpole  (1717-1797)
_____. Catalogue of Royal and Noble Authors of England. 2 vols. Twickenham: Strawberry Hill Press, 1758.
_____. Fugitive Pieces in Verse and Prose.  Twickenham: Strawberry Hill Press, 1758.
_____. Anecdotes of Painting in England. 5 vols. Twickenham: Strawberry Hill Press, 1762-1780. Based on notes by George Vertue (1684-1756).
_____. (Anonymously pub.) The Castle of Otranto: A Gothic Story.  Novel.  1764 (dated 1765). 
_____. The Mysterious Mother. Tragedy. Twickenham: Strawberry Hill Press, 1768.
_____. Memoirs of the Last Ten Years of . . . George the Second. Ed. Lord Holland. 2 vols. 1822.
_____. Memoirs of the Reign of George the Third.   Ed. Sir D. Le Marchant. 4 vols. 1845.
_____. Correspondence.  1820, etc.


Ann Radcliffe   (1764-1823)
_____. The Castles of Athlin and Dunbayne.  Story. 1689.
_____.  A Sicilian Romance.  2 vols.  1790.
_____.  The Romance of the Forest.  3 vols.   1791.
_____.  The Mysteries of Udolpho: A Romance.   4 vols. 1794. 
_____.  A Journey Made in the Summer of 1794 through Holland and the Western Frontiers of Germany. Travel Book.  1795.
_____.  The Italian, or the Confessional of the Black Penitents.  3 vols.  1797. 
_____.  Romano Castle: or, The Horrors of the Forest. Romance.
_____.  The Poems of Ann Radcliffe. 1816.
_____.  Gaston de Blondeville, or the Court of Henry III Keeping Festival in Ardenne. A Romance. 1826.
_____.  St Alban's Abbey: A Metrical Tale.  1826.  









From The Mysteries of Udolpho —a "sublime" Romantic landscape:

    Towards the close of day, the road wound into a deep valley. Mountains, whose shaggy steeps appeared to be inaccessible, almost surrounded it. To the east, a vista opened, that exhibited the Apennines in their darkest horrors; and the long perspective of retiring summits, rising over each other, their ridges clothed with pines, exhibited a stronger image of grandeur, than any that Emily had yet seen. The sun had just sunk below the top of the mountains she was descending, whose long shadow stretched athwart the valley, but his sloping rays, shooting through an opening of the cliffs, touched with a yellow gleam the summits of the forest, that hung upon the opposite steeps, and streamed in full splendour upon the towers and battlements of a castle, that spread its extensive ramparts along the brow of a precipice above. The splendour of these illumined objects was heightened by the contrasted shade, which involved the valley below.

    "There," said Montoni, speaking for the first time in several hours, "is Udolpho."

    Emily gazed with melancholy awe upon the castle, which she understood to be Montoni's; for, though it was now lighted up by the setting sun, the gothic greatness of its features, and its mouldering walls of dark grey stone, rendered it a gloomy and sublime object. As she gazed, the light died away on its walls, leaving a melancholy purple tint, which spread deeper and deeper, as the thin vapour crept up the mountain, while the battlements above were still tipped with splendour. From those, too, the rays soon faded, and the whole edifice was invested with the solemn duskiness of evening. Silent, lonely, and sublime, it seemed to stand the sovereign of the scene, and to frown defiance on all, who dared to invade its solitary reign. As the twilight deepened, its features became more awful in obscurity, and Emily continued to gaze, till its clustering towers were alone seen, rising over the tops of the woods, beneath whose thick shade the carriages soon after began to ascend.


_______________________


William Beckford  (1759-1844)
_____. Dreams, Waking Thoughts and Incidents. Travel book. 1783. Revised as Italy, with Sketches of Spain and Portugal. 1834.
_____. The History of the Caliph Vathek. Novel. (In French). Paris and Lausanne, 1787.
_____. Vathek. Trans. Samuel Henley. 1786.








_____________________



NIVEL AVANZADO:

Beckfordiana.

Beckford y su Vathek influyeron en el espíritu de los románticos ingleses. Una fuente remota de 'Kubla Khan': http://ssrn.com/abstract=2542598

__________________________





Matthew Gregory Lewis   (1775-1818)
_____. The Monk.   Novel.  1796. 
_____. The Castle Spectre.  Drama. 1797.
_____. The East Indian.  Drama. 1799.


Clara Reeve  (1729-1807)
_____.  The Champion of Virtue: A Gothic Story.  Novel.  1777.  (Retitled The Old English Baron,  1778).
_____.  The Progress of Romance, through Times, Countries, Manners.   Published with The History of Charoba, Queen of Egypt. Novel. 1785.
_____. Memoirs of Sir Roger de Clarendon, a Natural Son of Edward the Black Prince. Novel. 1793.

______________

 

 

7 enero: Hablaremos de la poesía de mediados y finales del XVIII, con los textos de Gray y Cowper.

 

 

 


William Cowper  (1731-1800)
_____. Hymns in Olney Hymns. 1779. ("God Moves in a Mysterious Way")
_____. "John Gilpin." Ballad. 1782.

_____. Poems. 1782.
_____.  The Task.  1785.

_____. "The Negro's Complaint." 1788.
_____. "The Castaway." 1799. 

 

- Unas notas sobre William Cowper.
 

- "The Stricken Deer", from The Task.


 - Un audio sobre William Cowper
______________

NIVEL AVANZADO: A Reading of William Cowper.


___________________







Thomas Gray 
(1716-1771)
_____.  Journal in France. Written 1739. Posthumous pub.
_____. "Ode on the Spring." 1742.
_____. "Ode to Adversity." 1742.
_____. "Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College." 1742.
_____. Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard.  Written 1742-50. Pub. 1751.
_____. The Progress of Poesy. Ode. Written. 1754. Pub. 1757.
_____.  The Bard. Ode. Written 1754-57. Pub. 1757.
_____. "The Triumphs of Owen." Poem. Written c. 1764. Pub. 1768.
_____. "The Fatal Sisters." From the Norse Tongue.  Poem. Written 1761. Pub. 1768.
_____. "The Descent of Odin." Poem. Written 1761. Pub. 1768.
_____. Poems. 1768.
_____. Journal in the Lakes. Written 1769, pub. 1775.
_____. Poems. Ed. William Mason. 1775.



De Gray leemos en clase la "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard"


Gray's "An Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard" — a study guide.




______________________

 

The "Graveyard School": Some of Gray's Contemporaries

Thomas Gray: NIVEL AVANZADO


______________________

Poetry in the Age of Johnson — Other poets



Christopher Smart  (1722-1771)
_____. Poems on Several Occasions. 1752.
_____. A Song to David. Poem. 1763.
_____. Rejoice in the Lamb, a Song from Bedlam. (= Jubilate Agno).  1939.


James Macpherson 
(1736-1796)
_____. Fragments of Ancient Poetry Collected in the Highlands of Scotland. 1760.
_____. Fingal: An Ancient Epic Poem.  1762.
_____. Temora: An Ancient Epic Poem.  1763.
_____. The Works of Ossian.  Ed. William Sharp.  Edinburgh, 1896.





Thomas Chatterton 
(1752-1770)
_____. Poems, Supposed to have been Written at Bristol, by Thomas Rowley.  Ed. Thomas Tyrwhitt. 1777.


 

 Wikipedia: Thomas Chatterton

 

________________

- A lecture on The Age of Johnson

________________

 

17 diciembre: última clase antes de las vacaciones, necesitaremos los textos de Johnson y de Goldsmith.








Samuel Johnson  (1709-1784)

_____. London, A Poem in Imitation of the Third Satire of Juvenal. 1738.

_____.  The Vanity of Human Wishes: The Tenth Satire of Juvenal Imitated. 1749.
_____.  The Rambler.  1750-2.

_____.  A Dictionary of the English Language: In Which the Words are Deduced from Their Originals, and Illustrated in Their Different Significations by Examples from the Best Writers.   2 vols. London, 1755. 
_____.  The Idler.  Periodical. 1758-60.
_____.  The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abisinia.  2 vols.  1759.
_____, ed. The Plays of William Shakespeare, with Notes, etc.  8 vols.  1765. (Preface to Shakespeare).
_____.  Lives of the English Poets.  1778-1780. 
_____.  Prayers and Meditations. 1785.


From the Life of Cowley: the Metaphysical poets.











________________________


Samuel Johnson as a critic



Samuel Johnson: NIVEL AVANZADO


________________________






James Boswell  (1740-1795)

_____.  Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides.   Travel Book.  1785.
_____. The Life of Samuel Johnson.  1791.
_____. Journal.  1950-.



_________________

Génesis de la biografía moderna - Johnson y Boswell (audio)

Prose in the Age of Reason
(Anthony Burgess).






___________________________

OLIVER GOLDSMITH (c. 1730-1774)

Oliver Goldsmith, Anglo-Irish writer, graduated Trinity College, 1750; st. in Leyden and tour of Europe to 1755; lived in London; physician and hack writer; worked for publisher John Newbery; member of Johnson's Club, unmarried, addicted to gambling and spending, died in debt.
_____. (Unsigned). An Enquiry into the Present State of Polite Learning in Europe. 1759.
_____. (Unsigned). The Bee. Serial miscellany. 8 nos. 1759.
_____. (Unsigned). "Chinese Letters" in The Public Ledger. 1760-61. Collected as The Citizen of the World. 1762.
_____. The Traveller, or A Prospect of Society. Poem. 1764.
_____. History of England.  1764-71.
_____. "Asem the Man-Hater." Philosophical tale.  
_____. Essays. 1765.
_____. The Vicar of Wakefield. Novel. 1766.
_____. The Good-Natured Man. Drama. 1768.
_____. The Roman History. 2 vols. 1769.
_____. The Deserted Village. Poem. 1770.
_____. She Stoops to Conquer. Comedy.  1773.
_____. The Grecian History. 2 vols. 1774.
_____. A History of the Earth and Animated Nature. 8 vols. 1774.
_____. Retaliation. Poem. Posth. Pub. 1774.

 
Goldsmith, Oliver, et al., eds. (Ps. "Honourable Mrs. Caroline Stanhope"). The Lady's Magazine: Or, Polite Companion for the Fair Sex. (1759-63).





___________________

Some notes on Oliver Goldsmith

___________________

 


Adam Smith (1723-1790)
_____. Theory of the Moral Sentiments. 1759. With A Dissertation on the Origin of Languages, 1761.
_____. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. 1776.
_____. Essays on Philosophical Subjects.  1795.


___________________

ADAM SMITH: NIVEL AVANZADO
_____________________


 

Edward Gibbon  (1737-1794)
_____.  History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.  1766-1788.
_____. Memoirs of My Life. 1796.



EDWARD GIBBON —@ Wikipedia.

_____________________

 

 

16 de diciembre: trataremos de Henry Fielding y otros novelistas. Traed el texto de Tom Jones.
Aunque a partir de ahora tendremos que dedicar menos tiempo a leer, por ver rápidamente los autores que faltan. La última semana de diciembre, Fielding, Sterne, y Gray.

 

Tenemos fecha de examen de la primera convocatoria:

-grupo 2 (mañana),  lunes 1 feb. 2021 10-13 h aula 301 interfacultades

- grupo 1 (tarde),  lunes 1 Feb. 2021 15-18h aula 502 interfacultades


 

Si aún no tenéis manual, aún estáis a tiempo de haceros con uno para que os sirva para esta asignatura y para las otras asignaturas de literatura.

Algunos de los manuales recomendados, pueden encontrarse en la web en PDF. Aquí hay dos de ellos:

PDF (The Short Oxford History of English Literature)

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B9a3FSxKl6ZlV0dkUkJSWHR0dEU/view?usp=drivesdk   (M Alexander, A History of English Literature)

Y otro que puede serviros (de todos ellos algunos capítulos, no todo el manual):

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B9a3FSxKl6ZlZUNRcHNYak4yOTA/view?usp=drivesdk    (English Literature and its Context 1500-2000)
 
Pero comprad para vuestro uso continuado en este y otros cursos un libro físico, tangible.





_____________________________

NIVEL AVANZADO:

 

Some notes on
The Eighteenth-century novel (Saintsbury)

 

_____________________________


Other major novelists:

Frances Burney
(Mme d'Arblay,  1752-1840)
_____. Evelina; or, The History of a Young Lady's Entrance into the World.   Novel.  1778. 
_____. Cecilia, or Memoirs of an Heiress. Novel. 1782.
_____.  Camilla.  Novel.  1796. 
_____.  The Wanderer: Or, Female Difficulties.  Novel.  1814.
_____. The Early Journals and Letters of Fanny Burney.   (post.).





___________________________

NIVEL AVANZADO:



Burney y la novela de sociedad: La nece(si)dad de guardar las apariencias en Cecilia.

 
Un episodio de Cecilia, de Frances Burney, sobre dificultades económicas y la Deuda.

__________________________




 
Tobias Smollett
(1721-1771)




Smollett was a British man of letters, b. Scotland, emigrated to London; failed author, and naval surgeon; later journalist, satirical novelist and historian, Tory critic of the bourgeoisie.

 

_____. The Regicide. Tragedy. 1739. Pub. 1749.
_____. Advice. Satire. 1746.
_____. Reproof. Satire. 1747.
_____. (Anon.) The Adventures of Roderick Random.  Novel. 1748.
_____, trans. Gil Blas. 4 vols. 1749. (by Alain-René Lesage).
_____. Peregrine Pickle.  Novel. 1751.
_____. The Adventures of Ferdinand Count Fathom. Novel. 1753.
_____, ed. (1756-63) Critical Review. Periodical.
_____, trans. History and Adventures of Don Quixote. 2 vols. 1755.
_____, ed. A Compendium of Authentic and Entertaining Voyages. Anthology of travel narratives. 1756. (With an account of the Cartagena expedition, probably his).
_____. Life and Adventures of Sir Launcelot Greaves. Novel. Serialized 1760-61, book 1762.
_____. The Complete History of England. 5 vols. 1760-65.
_____. Travels through France and Italy. 1766.
_____. The Present State of All Nations. Geography, history, etc. (in collab.?). 1768-69.
_____. (Anon.) The Adventures of an Atom. Satirical narrative. 1769.
_____. The Expedition of Humphry Clinker.  Novel. 1771.
_____, ed. (1760-67). The British Magazine. Magazine.
_____, ed. (1762-63). The Briton. Magazine.
Smollett, Tobias, et al., trans. The Works of M. de Voltaire. 26 vols. 1761-69.




__________________________________________

ADVANCED LEVEL:

_________________________







Laurence Sterne (1713-1768)
_____. A Political Romance. 1759. Later called The History of a Good Warm Watch Coat.
_____. The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman.  Novel. 9 vols. 1759-67.
_____. Sermons. 7 vols. 1760-1769.
_____. A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy, by Mr Yorick. Travel book. 1761.
_____. Letters from Yorick to Eliza. 1773.




________________________


NIVEL AVANZADO: 


Sterne (NIVEL AVANZADO) 


DAVID HUME, filósofo empirista, ilustrado y escéptico.

________________________






Algunas obras de

Henry Fielding  (1707-1754):

_____. Love in Several Masques. Comedy. 1728.
_____. The Masquerade. London, 1728.
_____. The Author's Farce and the Pleasures of the Town. 1730.
_____. The Letter-Writers. Comedy.
_____. The Tragedy of Tragedies, or Tom Thumb the Great. 1731. (Preface: Parody of neoclassical criticism). Parody of Young's Busiris.
_____. The Covent Garden Tragedy. 1732. Burlesque of Ambrose Philips' The Distrest Mother.
_____. The Modern Husband. Comedy. 1732.
_____. The Mock Doctor. 1732. Adaptation of Molière's Le Médecin Malgré Lui.
_____. The Miser. 1733. Adaptation of Molière's L'Avare.
_____. The Intriguing Chambermaid. Comedy. 1734.
_____. Don Quixote in England. Comedy. 1736.

_____. Pasquin. Farce. 1737.
_____. The Historical Register for the Year 1736. Farce. 1737.
_____. The Champion. Periodical (thrice a week). 1739.
_____. (Attr.). An Apology for the Life of Mrs Shamela Andrews, etc., by Conny Keyber. 1741.
_____. The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews, and of His Friend Mr Abraham Adams: Written in Imitation of the Manner of Cervantes, Author of "Don Quixote". Novel. 1742.
_____. "An Essay on Conversation." 1743.
_____. A Journey from this World to the Next. Menippean satire. In Miscellanies.Vol. 2. 1743.
_____. The Life of Mr. Jonathan Wild the Great. Novel. In Fielding, Miscellanies. Vol. 3. 1743.
_____. Miscellanies. 3 vols. 1743.
_____. The True Patriot. Periodical. 1745-46.
_____. (Anon.). The Female Husband.  1746.
_____. The Jacobite's Journal. Periodical. 1748-49.
_____. The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling. Novel. 1749.
_____. Amelia. Novel. 1751.
_____. An Inquiry into the Causes of the Late Increase of Robbers etc, with some Proposals for Remedying the Growing Evil. 1751.
_____. The Covent-Garden Journal. Periodical. 1752.
_____. Proposal for Making an Effectual Provision for the Poor. 1753.
_____. A Journal of a Voyage to Lisbon. 1754.






William Hogarth, "Canvassing for Votes"


 Some notes on HENRY FIELDING (Oxford Companion)

 

____________________________

 

NIVEL AVANZADO:


Part of a TV series on Fielding's Tom Jones

 
 Tom Jones (Project Gutenberg)


An audio introduction to Henry Fielding and Tom Jones.


___________________

10 diciembre: Samuel Richardson. Leeremos textos de Pamela y Clarissa.

 

 


SAMUEL RICHARDSON     (1689-1761)

Samuel Richardson, major English novelist, began as London printer apprentice, later prosperous self-made businessman; family man, distressed by death of many children and wife; remarried, nervous disorders; master printer of London and bourgeois novelist; developed sentimental epistolary novel with psychological and "feminist" interest.

  _____. Letters Written to and for Particular Friends, on the most important Occasions. Directing not only the Requisite Style and Forms to be observed in Writing Familiar Letters; but how to think and act justly and prudently, in the common Concerns of Human Life. 1741.
_____. Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded.  Novel. 2 vols.  1740.
_____. Pamela in Her Exalted Condition. Novel. 2 vols. 1741.
_____. Clarissa, or, The History of a Young Lady.  Novel. 8 vols. 1747-48.  (Volume 3)
_____. The History of Sir Charles Grandison: in a Series of Letters published from the Originals by the Editor of Pamela and Clarissa. Novel. 1753-4.




 
- An introduction to Samuel Richardson

VIDEO: Samuel Richarson (Crash Course Classics)



- La Wikipedia habla sobre estos autores. Aquí Samuel Richardson.  Y aquí pueden leerse sus obras en la web de Project Gutenberg.
 

- Mullan, John. "The Rise of the Novel." British Library 21 June 2018.*


___________________


Richardson: NIVEL AVANZADO

 

- Notas de Ian Watt sobre Defoe, y sobre Richardson: http://vanityfea.blogspot.com.es/2014/12/notes-on-ian-watts-rise-of-novel.html

 
- Un audio de la BBC sobre Epistolary Fiction in the 18th century
http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00775dh

 

VIDEO: An informal summary of Richardson's Pamela.


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  3. EARLY 18TH C.

miércoles, 13 de enero de 2021

William Blake (Oxford Companion)

 

From The Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret Drabble:


BLAKE, William (1757-1827), the third son of a London hosier. He did not go to school but was apprenticed to James Basire, engraver to the Society of *Antiquaries, and then became a student at the *Royal Academy. From 1779 he was employed as an engraver by the bookseller J. *Johnson, and in 1780 met *Fuseli and *Flaxman, the latter a follower of *Swedenborg, whose mysticism deeply influenced Blake. In 1782 he married Catherine Boucher, the daughter of a market-gardener; their childless marriage was a lasting communion. Flaxman at this period introduced him to the progressive intellectual circle of the Revd A. S. Mathew and his wife (which included Mrs *Barbauld, H. *More, and Mrs. E. *Montagu), and Mathew and Flaxman financed the publication of Blake's first volume, Poetical Sketches (1783). In 1784, with help from Mrs Mathew, he set up a print shop at 27 Broad Street, and about the same period (although not for publication) wrote the satirical *An Island in the Moon. He engraved and published his *Songs of Innocence in 1789, and also The Book of Thel, both works which manifest the early phases of his highly distinctive mystic vision, and in which he embarks on the evolution of his personal mythology; years later (in *Jerusalem) he was to state, through the character Los, 'I must create a System, or be enslaved by another Man's', words which have been taken by some to apply to his own need to escape from the fetters of 18th-cent. versification, as well as from the materialist philosophy (as he conceived it) of the *Enlightenment, and a Puritanical or repressive interpretation of Christianity. The Book of Thel presents the maiden Thel lamenting transience and mutability by the banks of the river of Adona; she is answered by the lily, the cloud, the worm, and the clod who assure her that 'He, who loves the lowly' cherishes even the meanest; but this relatively conventional wisdom is challenged by a final vision in which Thel visits the house of Clay, sees the couches of the dead, and hears 'a voice of sorrow' breathe a characteristically Blakean protest against hypocrisy and restraint—'Why a tender curb upon the youthful, burning boy? Why a tender little curtain of flesh upon the bed of our desire?'—a message which sends Thel back 'with a shriek' to the vales of Har. The ambiguity of this much-interpreted poem heralds the increasing complexity of his other works which include Tiriel (written 1789, pub. 1874), introducing the theme of the blind tyrannic father, 'the king of rotten wood, and of the bones of death', which reappears in different forms in many poems; *The Marriage of Heaven and Hell (engraved c. 1790-3), his principal prose work, a book of paradoxical aphorisms; and the revolutionary works The French Revolution (1791); America: A Prophecy (1793); and Visions of the Daughters of Albion (1793), in which he develops his attitude of revolt against authority, combining political fervour (he had met *Paine at Johnson's) and visionary ecstasy; Urizen, the deviser of moral codes (described as 'the stony law' of the Decalogue) and *Orc, the Promethean arch-rebel, emerge as principal characters in a cosmology that some scholars have related to that of *Gnosticism. By this time Blake had already established his poetic range; the long, flowing lines and violent energy of the verse combine with phrases of terse and aphoristic clarity and moments of great lyric tenderness, and he was once more to demonstrate his command of the lyric in Songs of Experience (1794) which includes 'Tyger! Tyger! burning bright', 'O Rose thou art sick', and other of his more accessible pieces.

Meanwhile the Blakes had moved to Lambeth in 1790; there he continued to engrave his own works and to write, evolving his mythology further in The Book of *Urizen (1794); *Europe: A Prophecy (1794); The Song of *Los (1795); The Book of Ahania (1795); The Book of Los (1795); and The Four Zoas (originally entitled Vala, written and revised 1797-1804), and also working for the booksellers. In 1800 he moved to Felpham, Sussex, where he lived for three years, working for his friend and patron *Hayley, and working on *Milton (1804-8); in 1803 he was charged at Chichester with high treason for having 'uttered seditious and treasonable expressions, such as "D—n the King, d—n all his subjects . . . "', but was acquitted. In the same year he returned to London, to work on Milton and Jerusalem: The Emanation of the Giant Albion (written and etched, 1804-20). In 1805 he was commissioned by Cromek to produce a set of drawings for R. *Blair's poem The Grave, but Cromek defaulted on the contract, and Blake earned neither the money nor the public esteem he had hoped for, and found his designs engraved and weakened by another hand. This was symptomatic of the disappointment of his later years, when he appears to have relinquished expectations of being widely understood, and quarreled even with some of the circle of friends who supported him. Both his poetry and his art had failed to find a sympathetic audience, and a lifetime of hard work had not brought him riches or even much comfort. His last years were passed in obscurity, although he continued to attract the interest and admiration of younger artists, and a commission in 1821 from the painter John Linnell produced his well-known illustrations for the Book of Job, published in 1826. (It was Linnell who introduced Blake to Samuel *Palmer in 1824.) A later poem, 'The Everlasting Gospel', written about 1818, shows undiminished power and attack; it presents Blake's own version of Jesus, in a manner that recalls the paradoxes of The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, attacking the conventional 'Creeping Jesus', gentle, humble, and chaste, and stressing his rebellious nature, his forgiveness of the woman taken in adultery, his reversing of the stony law of Moses, praising 'the Naked Human Form divine', and sexuality as the means whereby 'the Soul Expands its wing', and elevating forgiveness above the 'Moral Virtues'.

At Blake's death, general opinion held that he had been, if gifted, insane. *Wordsworth's verdict, according to C. *Robinson, was that 'The was no doubt that this poor man was mad, but there is something in the madness of this man which interests me more than the sanity of Lord Byron and Walter Scott', a view in some measure echoed by *Ruskin, who found his manner 'diseased and wild' but his mind 'great and wise'. It was not until A. *Gilchrist's biography of 1863 (significantly describing Blake as 'Pictor Ignotus') that interest began to grow. This was followed by an appreciation by *Swinburne (1868) and by W. M. *Rossetti's edition of 1874, which added new poems to the canon and established his reputation, at least as a lyric poet; his rediscovered engravings considerably influenced the development of *art nouveau. In 1893 *Yeats, a devoted admirer, produced with E. J. Ellis a three-volume edition, with a memoir and an interpretation of the mythology, and the 20th cent. saw an enormous increase in interest. The bibliographical studies and editions of G. *Keynes, culminating in The Complete Writings of William Blake (1966, 2nd edn), have added greatly to knowledge both of the man and his works, revealing him not only as an apocalyptic visionary but also as a writer of ribald and witty epigrams, a critic of spirit and originality, and an independent thinker who found his own way of resisting the orthodoxies of his age, and whose hostile response to the narrow vision and the materialism (as he conceived it) of his bêtes noires Joshua *Reynolds, *Locke, and Isaac *Newton was far from demented, but in part a prophetic warning of the dangers of a world perceived as mechanism, with man as a  mere cog in an industrial revolution. There have been many interpretative studies, relating his work to traditional Christianity, to the *Neoplatonic and Swedenborgian traditions, to Jungian *archetypes and to *Freudian and *Marxist theory; the Prophetic Books, once dismissed as incoherent, are now claimed by many as works of integrity as well as profundity. Recently, Blake has had a particularly marked influence on the *Beat Generation and the English poets of the *underground movement, hailed by both as a liberator; *Auden earlier acclaimed him ('New Year Letter', 1941) as 'Self-educated Blake . . .' who 'Spoke to Isaiah in the Strand / And heard inside each mortal thing / Its holy emanation sing'.

See also the Blake Books (1977) by G. E. Bentley Jnr, including annotated catalogues of his writings and scholarly books about him; The Complete Poetry and Prose of William Blake, ed. D. V. Erdman (1965, 1988); Blake's Illuminated Books, 6 vols. (1991-5), gen. ed. D. Bindman; and J. Viscomi, Blake and the Idea of the Book (1993), an authoritative account of Blake's graphic process; The William Blake Archive: http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/blake (ed. M. Eaves, R. Essick, J. Viscomi). There is a life by Peter *Ackroyd, (1995).



martes, 12 de enero de 2021

Oliver Goldsmith - ASEM: An Eastern Tale

 

OLIVER GOLDSMITH

(1728-1774)

 



 

ASEM

An Eastern Tale

 

Where Tauris lifts its head above the storm, and presents nothing to the sight of the distant traveller but a prospect of nodding rocks, falling torrents, and all the variety of tremendous nature; on the bleak bosom of this frightful mountain, secluded from society, and detesting the ways of men, lived Asem the Man-Hater. 

 

Asem had spent his youth with men, had shared in their amusements, and had been taught to love his fellow-creatures with the most ardent affection; but, from the tenderness of his disposition, he exhausted all his fortune in relieving the wants of the distressed. The petitioner never sued in vain; the weary traveller never passed his door; he only desisted from doing good when he had no longer the power of relieving.

 

For a fortune thus spent in benevolence he expected a grateful return from those he had formerly relieved, and made his application with confidence of redress: the ungrateful world soon grew weary of his importunity; for pity is but a short-lived passion. He soon, therefore, began to view mankind in a very different light from that in which he had before beheld them: he perceived a thousand vices he had never before suspected to exist; wherever he turned, ingratitude, dissimulation, and treachery, contributed to increase his detestation of them. Resolved, therefore, to continue no longer in a world which he hated, and which repaid his detestation with contempt, he retired to this region of sterility, in order to brood over his resentment in solitude, and converse with the only honest heart he knew—namely, with his own.

 

A cave was his only shelter from the inclemency of the weather; fruits, gathered with difficulty from the mountain's side, his only food; and his drink was fetched, with danger and toil, from the headlong torrent. In this manner he lived, sequestered from society, passing the hours in meditation, and sometimes exulting that he was able to live independent of his fellow-creatures.

 

At the foot of the mountain an extensive lake displayed its glassy bosom, reflecting on its broad surface the impending horrors of the mountain. To this capacious mirror he would sometimes descend, and, reclining on its steep banks, cast an eager look on the smooth expanse that lay before him. "How beautiful," he often cried, "is Nature! How lovely even in her wildest scenes! How finely contrasted is the level plain that lies beneath me with yon awful pile that hides its tremendous head in the clouds! But the beauty of these scenes is no way comparable with their utility; hence an hundred rivers are supplied, which distribute health and verdure to the various countries through which they flow. Every part of the universe is beautiful, just, and wise; but man, vile man, is a solecism in nature, the only monster in the creation. Tempests and whirlwinds have their use; but vicious, ungrateful, man is a blot in the fair page of universal beauty. Why was I born of that detested species, whose vices are almost a reproach to the wisdom of the divine Creator? Were men entirely free from vice, all would be uniformity, harmony, and order. A world of moral rectitude should be the result of a perfectly moral agent. Why, why then, O Alla! must I be thus confined in darkness, doubt, and despair?"

 

Just as he uttered the word despair, he was going to plunge into the lake beneath him, at once to satisfy his doubts, and put a period to his anxiety, when he perceived a most majestic being walking on the surface of the water, and approaching the bank on which he stood. So unexpected an object at once checked his purpose; he stopped, contemplated, and fancied he saw something awful and divine in his aspect.

 

"Son of Adam," cried the Genius, "stop thy rash purpose; the Father of the Faithful has seen thy justice, thy integrity, thy miseries, and hath sent me to afford and administer relief. Give me thine hand, and follow without trembling wherever I shall lead: in me behold the Genius of Conviction, kept by the great Prophet, to turn from their errors those who go astray, not from curiosity, but a rectitude of intention. Follow me and be wise." 

 

Asem immediately descended upon the lake, and his guide conducted him along the surface of the water, till, coming near the centre of the lake, they both began to sink; the waters closed over their heads; they descended several hundred fathoms, till Asem, just ready to give up his life as inevitably lost, found himself, with his celestial guide, in another world, at the bottom of the waters, where human foot had never trod before. His astonishment was beyond description, when he saw a sun like that he had left, a serene sky over his head, and blooming verdure under his feet. 

 

"I plainly perceive your amazement," said the Genius; "but suspend it for a while. This world was formed by Alla, at the request, and under the inspection, of our great Prophet, who once entertained the same doubts which filled your mind when I found you, and from the consequence of which you were so lately rescued. The rational inhabitants of this world are formed agreeable to your own ideas; they are absolutely without vice. In other respects it resembles your earth, but differs from it in being wholly inhabited by men who never do wrong. If you find this world more agreeable than that you so lately left, you have free pemission to spend the remainder of your days in it; but permit me for some time to attend you, that I may silence your doubts, and make you better acquainted with your company and your new habitation."

 

"A world without vice! Rational beings without immorality!" cried Asem, in a rapture; "I thank thee, O Alla! who hast at length heard my petitions: this, this indeed will produce happiness, ecstasy, and ease. Oh, for an immortality, to spend it among men who are incapable of ingratitude, injustice, fraud, violence, and a thousand other crimes that render society miserable!"

 

"Cease thine exclamations," replied the Genius. "Look around thee: reflect on every object and action before us, and communicate to me the result of thine observations. Lead wherever you think proper, I shall be your attendant and instructor." Asem and his companion travelled on in silence for some time, the former being entirely lost in astonishment; but at last recovering his former serenity, he could not help observing, that the face of the country bore a near resemblance to that he had left, except that this subterranean world still seemed to retain its primeval wildness.

 

"Here," cried Asem, "I perceive animals of prey and others that seem only designed for their subsistence; it is the very same in the world over our heads. But had I been permitted to instruct our Prophet, I would have removed this defect, and formed no voracious or destructive animals, which only prey on the other parts of the creation."

 

—"Your tenderness for inferior animals is, I find, remarkable," said the Genius, smiling. "But, with regard to meaner creatures, this world exactly resembles the other, and, indeed, for obvious reasons; for the earth can support a more considerable number of animals by their thus becoming food for each other, than if they had lived entirely on her vegetable productions. So that animals of different natures thus formed, instead of lessening their multitude, subsist in the greatest number possible. But let us hasten on to the inhabited country before us, and see what that offers for instruction."

 

They soon gained the utmost verge of the forest, and entered the country inhabited by men without vice; and Asem anticipated in idea the rational delight he hoped to experience in such an innocent society. But they had scarcely left the confines of the wood, when they beheld one of the inhabitants flying with hasty steps, and terror in his countenance, from an army of squirrels, that closely pursued him. "Heavens!" crued Asem, "Why does he fly? What can he fear from animals so contemptible?" He had scarcely spoken, when he perceived two dogs pursuing another of the human species, who with equal terror and haste attempted to avoid them. "This," cried Asem to his guide, "is truly surprising; nor can I conceive the reason for so strange an action." —"Every species of animals," replied the Genius, "has of late grown very powerful in this country; for the inhabitants, at first, thinking it unjust to use either fraud or force in destroying them, they have insensibly increased, and now frequently ravage their harmless frontiers."—"But they should have been destroyed," cried Asem; "you see the consequence of such neglect."—"Where is, then, that tenderness you so lately expressed for subordinate animals?" replid the Genius, smiling; "you seem to have forgot that branch of justice."—"I must acknowledge my mistake," returned Asem; "I am now convinced that we must be guilty of tyranny and injustice to the brute creation, if we would enjoy the world ourselves. But let us no longer observe the duty of man to these irrational creatures, but survey their connections with one another."

 

As they walked farther up the country, the more he was surprised to see no vestiges of handsome houses, no cities, nor any mark of elegant design. His conductor, perceiving his surprise, observed, that the inhabitants of this new world were perfectly content with their ancient simplicity; each had a house, which, though homely, was sufficient to lodge his little family; they were too good to build houses, which could only increase their own pride, and the envy of the spectator: what they built was for convenience, and not for show. "At least, then," said Asem, "they have neither architects, painters, nor statuaries, in their society; but these are idle arts, and may be spared. However, before I spend much more time here, you should have my thanks for introducing me into the society of their wisest men: there is scarce any pleasure to me equal to a refined conversation; there is nothing of which I am so much enamoured as wisdom."—"Wisdom!" replied his instructor; "how ridiculous! Wee have no wisdom here, for we have no occasion for it; true wisom is only a knowledge of our own duty, and the duty of others to us; but of what use is such wisdom here? Each intuitively performs what is right in himself, and expects the same from others. If by wisdom you should mean vain curiosity and empty speculation, as such pleasures have their origin in vanity, luxury, or avarice, we are too good to pursue them."—"All this may be right," says Asem: "but methinks I observe a solitary disposition prevail among the people; each family keeps separately within their own precincts, without society, or without intercourse."—"That indeed, is true," replied the other; "here is no established society, nor should there be any; all societies are made either though fear or friendship: the people we are among are too good to fear each other; and there are no motives to private friendship, where all are equally meritorious."—"Well, then," said the sceptic, "as I am to spend my time here, if I am to have neither the polite arts, nor wisdom, nor friendship, in such a world, I should be glad at least of an easy companion, who may tell me his thoughts, and to whom I may communicate mine."—"And to what purpose should either do this?" says the Genius: "flattery or curiosity are vicious motives, and never allowed of here; and wisdom is out of the question."

 

"Still, however," said Asem, "the inhabitants must be happy; each is contented with his own possessions, nor avariciously endavours to heap up more than is necessary for his own subsistence; each has therefore leisure for pitying those that stand in need of his compassion." He had scarce spoken, when his ears were assaulted with the lamentations of a wretch who sat by the way-side, and in the most deplorable distress seemed gently to murmur at his own misery. Asem immediately ran to his relief, and found him in the last stage of a consumption. "Strange," cried the son of Adam, "that men who are free from vice should thus suffer so much misery without relief!"—"Be not surprised," said the wretch who was dying: "would it not be the utmost injustice for beings who have only just sufficient to support themselves, and are content with a bare subsistence, to take it from their ownmouths to put it into mine? They never are possessed of a single meal  more than is necessary, and what is barely necessary cannot be dispensed with."—"They should have been supplied with more than is necessary," cried Asem—"and yet I contradict my own opinion but a moment before—all is doubt, perplexity, and confusion. Even the want of ingratitude is no virtue here, since they never received a favour. They have, however, another excellence yet behind; the love of their country is still, I hope, one of their darling virtues."—"Peace, Asem," replied the Guardian, with a countenance not less severe than beautiful; "nor forfeit all thy pretensions to wisdom: the same selfish motives by which we prefer our own interests to that of others, induce us to regard our country preferably to that of another. Nothing less than universal benevolence is free from vice, and that you see is practised here."—"Strange!" cries the disappointed pilgrim, in an agony of distress; "what sort of a world am I now introduced to? There is scarce a single virtue, but that of temperance, which they practise: and in that they are no way superior to the very brute creation. There is scarce an amusement which they enjoy; fortitude, liberality, friendship, wisdom, conversation, and love of country, all are virtues entirely unknown here: thus it seems that to be unacquainted with vice is not to know virtue. Take me, O my Genius, back to that very world which I have despised: a world which has Alla for its contriver is much more wisely formed than that which has been projected by Mahomet. Ingratitude, contempt, and hatred, I can now suffer, for perhaps I have deserved them. When I arraigned the wisdom of Providence, I only showed my own ignorance; henceforth let me keep from vice myself, and pity it in others."

 

He had scarce ended, when the Genius, assuming an air of terrible complacency, called all his thunders around him, and vanished in a whirlwind. Asem, astonished at the terror of the scene, looked for his imaginary world; when, casting his eyes around, he perceived himself in the very situation, and in the very place, where he first began to repine and despair; his right foot had been just advanced to take the fatal plunge, nor had it been yet withdrawn; so instantly did Providence strike the series of truths just imprinted on his soul. He now departed from the water-side in tranquillity; and leaving his horrid mansion, travelled to Segestan, his native city, where he diligently applied himself to commerce, and put in practice the wisdom he had learned in solitude. The frugality of a few years soon produced opulence; the number of his domestics increased; his friends came to him from every part of the city; nor did he receive them with disdain; and a youth of misery was concluded with an old age of elegance, affluence, and ease.

 

 

—oOo—

 

 

 

4. LATER 18TH C.

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